1997. Hall, D. W. 1998. Springfield, Virginia, USA. History of Biological Control Efforts in the Eastern United States. Cogon grass produces as many as 3,000 seeds per plant (Holm et al., 1977). 1980. Sida 14: 613-615. In Proceedings of the Sixth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, Jakarta, Indonesia, July 11-17, 1997. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. Cogongrass: problems and solutions. Gainesville, Florida, USA. in Malaysia. Temperature factors limiting the spread of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) and Torpedograss (Panicum repens). 2), and recreational and natural areas (Bryson and Carter, 1993; Dozier et al., 1998; Willard et al., 1990). Modified True or Fake: White TRUE # the statement is correct it is false,CHANGE THE UNDERLINED WORD(S) to make the statement true. Ecological damage. Desc: Sicogón is an island in northern Iloilo, which is part of the municipality of Carles, Iloilo, Philippines.It is named after cogon, a type of grass found in abundance on the island. It is likely that fungi associated with cogon grass are more diverse and abundant than indicated by herbarium records (Evans, 1991; Charudattan, 1997; Minno and Minno, 2000). More recently Yandoc et al. Cogon grass seed germination rates and survival rates of newly germinated seedlings were not significantly affected by gap size or disturbance type (King and Grace, 2000b). Weed Research 19: 321-327. A. Lewis, and W. L. Currey. Langeland, K. A. and K. Craddock Burks. Evans (1987, 1991) suggested that some of the known pathogens of cogon grass should be considered for introduction to the United States as classical biological control agents. Beware of Cogon Grass. Results obtained indicate that the holocellulose (64.93%) content is comparable with other published non-woods and the lignin (5.67%) content is favourably the lowest. In the United States, cogon grass occurs in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Texas (Fig. paillotte. Recently, Minno and Minno (1999, 2000) surveyed cogon grass in Florida, Mississippi, and Alabama, looking for native or naturalized enemies. ), and southern Alabama (Dickens, 1974). The gall midge O. javanica needs to be evaluated for potential introduction into the United States. The genus Imperata, family Poaceae, subfamily Panicoideae, supertribe Andropogonodae, tribe Andropogoneae (Gabel, 1982; Watson and Dallwitz, 1992), subtribe Saccharinae (Clayton, 1972; Campbell, 1985), includes nine species worldwide (Gabel, 1982). A third species, Imperata brevifolia Vasey, occurs in the western United States (Gabel, 1982). Caunter, I. G. 1996. (1999) have conducted greenhouse and miniplot trials with isolates of Bipolaris sacchari (E. Butler) Shoemaker and Drechslera gigantea (Heald and F. A. Wolf) Kaz. Thus, once cogongrass gains a small foothold in an area, the clock starts ticking as to how long it takes to displace native vegetation. The subfamilies and tribes of the Gramineae (Poaceae) in the southeastern United States. In addition to the above, work with existing and new pathogens is needed both in the area of developing effective bioherbicides and to explore the potential of possible introductions of host specific foreign pathogens. 1996. 7 In the Philippines, grasses were also reported to be the most predominant pollen grains in the atmosphere with perennial pollination. Willard, T. R., D. W. Hall, D. G. Shilling, J. Differences in the areas of origin of the various introductions of I. cylindrica var. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Should this cold-tolerant cultivar be introduced into the southeast and hybridize with I. cylindrica var. Flowering typically occurs in spring or after disturbance of the sward (mowing, etc.). ), with approximately 88% of domestic cane sugar production in the United States occurring in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas (Haley, 2000). The grass blades tend to be yellow to . Some of the most widely recognized of these are blady grass, alang-alang, lalang, cogon grass, and speargrass. pp. Gautier, Mississippi, USA. In greenhouse studies, King and Grace (2000a) found cogon grass to be most sensitive to soil saturation during early establishment (following seed germination). Photosynthesis can take place eren in the absence of light, Add the substances in the first and second box and identify what mixture is it andits uses.USESEXAMPLEORANGEWATER3. This red-colored ornamental cultivar can revert to the green form, which is the invasive variety (Greenlee, 1992; Dozier et al., 1998; Hall, 1998; C. Bryson, pers. Biology, ecology, and distribution of Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.],. Kalikasan The Philippine Journal of Biology 4(2): 155-164. Living Organisms: All living organisms are classified in one of these kingdoms: animals, plants, fungi, monera, and protists. 1995. 1978. Proceedings of the Plant Protection Conference, Malaysia, 22-25 March, 1978. While cogon grass is tolerant of wide variations in soil fertility, organic matter, and moisture, it grows best in relatively acidic soils (pH 4.7) (Hubbard et al., 1944; Wilcut et al., 1988a). Shilling, D. G. and J. F. Gaffney. Survey of herbivorous arthropods and pathogens of cogongrass in Florida. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 5,238. Interestingly, the smut S. schweinfurthiana is common in the Mediterranean region where I. cylindrica is not a serious problem (Evans, 1991). Patterson, D. T. and C. G. McWhorter. Imperata cylindrica ‘Rubra’ is very cold tolerant (Shilling et al., 1997), and has persisted in Michigan for several years in an ornamental garden (C. Bryson, pers. Byrd, Jr., J. D. and C. T. Bryson. Literature records and on-line databases suggest an extensive number of potential natural enemies, including pathogens, arthropods, and other invertebrates found within and outside of North America. Hubbard, C. E., R. O. Whyte, D. Brown, and A. P. Gray. 1993. Applications of spore suspensions of this fungus failed to kill whole plants, but it may be possible to enhance disease severity with the addition of yeast or other amendments. In addition to being highly competitive, the rhizomes of cogon grass may physically injure other plants and appear to be allelopathic in certain situations (Brook, 1989; Bryson and Carter, 1993). Brook, R. M. 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 35: 309-317. Seed heads range from 2 to 8 inches in length a… Dozier, H., J. F. Gaffney, S. K. McDonald, E. R. R. L. Johnson, and D. G. Shilling. Restoration and Management Notes 13(2): 227. It gives Imperata cylindrica var. Imperata cylindrica: Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. MAPPS Newsletter 12: 6. major originated in Southeast Asia and occurs throughout the tropical and warmer regions of the world, from Japan to southern China, through the Pacific islands, Australia, India, East Africa, and the southeastern United States (Holm et al., 1977). Fungal Databases. Biological Control of Weeds. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 369-393. Join now. Internal Report, CIBC Sabah Substation, Tuaran, Malaysia. Chase. In the southeastern United States, the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) is one potential predator that may reduce the potential of O. javanica to suppress I. cylindrica. 1 Cogongrass has a unique combination of characteristics that make field identification possible. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Flowering is variable between individual plants and stands, but generally occurs in spring or fall, and often in response to a range of disturbances (e.g., burning, mowing, soil disturbance) throughout the year. CABI Publishing, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication 7: 1-63. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, Bartow, Florida, USA. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society 49: 156. Gagné, R. J. Other invertebrates from outside of the United States that may be host specific and damaging to cogon grass include the nematode Heterodera sinensis Chen, Zheng, and Peng (Chen et al., 1996), the mite Aceria imperata (Zaher and Abou-Awad) (Zaher and Abou-Awad, 1978), and two unidentified dipteran stem borers (Mangoendihardjo, 1980). 1995. …, lresistance; current and resistance. Sandhills, flatwoods, hardwood hammocks, sand dunes, grasslands, river margins, swamps, scrub, and wet pine savanna communities all are invaded by cogon grass. Wetlands 20: 2. Young infestations are usually easier to control than older well-established infestations. This weak effort can be explained, in large part, by the historical emphasis in weed biological control projects on insects as biological control agents and lack of host specific insects associated with weedy grasses (Evans, 1991; Julien and Griffiths, 1998). This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Waterhouse, D. F. 1999. Circular SS-AGR-52. Schmitz, D. C. and T. C. Brown (project directors). Cogon grass was first introduced to the U.S. at Mobile, Alabama, via shipping crates that contained cogon grass as a packing material. During the dark reaction water molecules break down intohydrogen and oxygen.3. Log in. Evans, H. C. 1991. M. S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. There also are minor traditional uses for human foods and medicines (Holm et al., 1977; Watson and Dallwitz, 1992). 1998. M. S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 525-527. Pascagoula, Mississippi, USA. A. N. Van Loan - Florida Division of Forestry, Forest Health Section, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 1944. Gabel (1982) identified 29 synonyms for I. cylindrica. Isolation of growth inhibiting substances from alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Cogon grass seedling survivorship is low with less than 20% of emergent seedlings surviving to one year. Other fungi known as cogon grass pathogens pose greater difficulties because of conflicting or confusing taxonomy or insufficient information. Imperata cylindrica has been distinguished from I. brasiliensis based on number of stamens. The genus Imperata belongs to the tribe Andropogoneae, in the subtribe Saccharinae Griseb. Cogon grass is a C4 grass found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas with 75 to 500 cm of annual rainfall (Bryson, 1999). To control cogon grass in the United States, an integrated program of biological control and revegetation with more desirable species will be needed (Shilling et al., 1998). Soerjani, M. 1970. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. Varying in form, from loose to compact tufts, cogon grass is strongly rhizomatous with extensive, sharply pointed, creeping scaly rhizomes (Holm. It grows in coastland, disturbed areas, natural forest, (1976), and Ammar et al. Outside the United States, 66 pathogens (primarily fungi), 42 insects, two nematodes, and one mite have been found on I. cylindrica. Ask your question. However, because O. javanica does not directly harm the plant’s rhizomes, it is unlikely to control the plant by itself (Brook, 1989). Having no dormancy, seeds are highly germinable (90% or higher), but often with low spikelet fill (less than 40%) in natural populations. Individual leaf blades are flat and serrated, with an off-center prominent white midrib (Figure 2). Biological Control of Weeds: A World Catalogue of Agents and Their Target Weeds, 4th ed. Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Holm, L. G., D. L. Plucknett, J. V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger. 323-337. Studies in the Gramineae: The awned genera of the Andropogoneae. The seed head (Figure 3) is fluffy, white, and plume-like. …, odification from common ancestors to produce the organismal diversity, Activity 1. comm.). Infestation by O. javanica is likely to reduce photosynthesis due to leaf blade reduction, leading to lower rhizome carbohydrate reserves. Key natural enemies of O. javanica include a parasite (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae, Platygaster sp. (ed.). Notes on the tribe Andropogoneae (Gramineae). 1812) occurred in 1792 and 1812, respectively. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.)Beauv.) Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. Enhancement of efficacy of Bipolaris sacchari (E. Butler) Shoem., a bioherbicide agent of cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Chen, P., J. Zheng, and D. Peng. Weed Science Society of Indonesia, Bogor, Indonesia. Analysis of Related Native Plants in the Eastern United States. Additionally, several species of the genera Miscanthus and Microstegium have been introduced into the eastern United States. merit further evaluation as potential bioherbicides (Charudattan, 1997). Currently the most effective management strategies in the United States have involved integrating mechanical (e.g., discing, mowing), cultural (e.g., burning), chemical (e.g., herbicide applications of glyphosate and imazapyr), and revegetation methods (Shilling and Gaffney, 1995; Dozier et al., 1998). 7) has been considered the most important insect pest of I. cylindrica due to its host specificity (Mangoendihardjo, 1980; Soenarjo, 1986). Join now. Family: Gramineae (Grass Family) Medicinal use of Cogongrass: The flowers and the roots are antibacterial, diuretic, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic. However, field surveys in Java from 1973 to 1976 identified 15 species of insects associated with I. cylindrica (Mangoendihardjo, 1980). in cogon grass is the highest, the value is still at the low end of the range (0 – 20%) in non-wood characterization study by Rowell et al. Pupae are parasitized by the wasp Platygaster oryzae (Cameron) (Soenarjo, 1986). Distribution and control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in Mississippi. (Center et al., 1995). Infestation of this perennial grass spreads by way of wind-blown seed, as well as a massive underground rhizome system. Campbell, C. S. 1985. The only insect enemy of I. cylindrica that has been subjected to host range testing is the gall midge O. javanica. Three other hymenopteran larval parasites of O. javanica are Obtusiclava sp. 1992. This perennial grass first introduced in the U.S. in 1912, from the tropical and subtropical regions of the world is an aggressive, invasive species. Chase, and E. R. R. L. Johnson. Clayton, W. D. 1981. For both economical and environmental reasons, the currently recommended control strategies often are unacceptable, necessitating consideration of some form of classical biological control (Shilling and Gaffney, 1995; Dozier et al., 1998). Of the pathogens detected in the United States, at least 11 fungal isolates collected from cogon and other grassy weeds in Florida have been tested for their pathogenicity to I. cylindrica in greenhouse trials. Outside the genus Imperata, the species most closely related to I. cylindrica that are native to the eastern United States are five species in the genus Erianthus (Hitchcock and Chase, 1951; Clayton, 1972; Campbell, 1985). In Amin, L. L., A. Brooklyn Botanical Garden, Brooklyn, New York. 1998. Florida Entomologist 78(1): 45-55. …, my bodyVitamin CORANGE JUICE1Answers may vary.SALTWARM WATERSALTSALT SOLUTIONNAnswers may vary.COLD WATERALCOHOLALCOHOLSOLUTION, punnet square is used to visualize the phenotype and genotype of an offpring, when you are buying youre food product,where should you look in order tobe sure if the product is good? 1977. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Government. No species in the genus Orseolia have been identified in North America (Gagné, 1989). Minno, M. C. and M. Minno. 3: Use the diagram showing the relationship among cursistance and voltage. Sugar and Sweetener Situation and Outlook Report. Imperata cylindrica is the most morphologically variable species in … in Java, pp. = Orseoliellia javanica). Survey of insects found on common weeds in Giza region. Incapable of self-pollination (Gabel, 1982), I. cylindrica produces viable seed only when cross-pollinated (McDonald et al., 1996), and the success rate of outcrossing is low (Shilling et al., 1997). TSS-94-100. I want to use Chou,Matches:1897,WinRate:89.5%. Alabama’s Treasured Forests 3: 8-9. Some notes on the natural enemies of Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) Caunter, I. G. and S. H. Wong. Allelopathy in a mixture of Cogon (Imperata cylindrica) and Stylosanthes guyanensis. 2.10. Ecophysiological and technological factors influencing the management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). More than 500 million ha of cogon grass have been estimated to occur worldwide (Holm et al., 1977). These include use for thatch, forage, erosion control, paper making, and bedding material for livestock. Hitchcock and Chase (1951) consider Miscanthus Andersson, Saccharum, Erianthus, and Microstegium Nees closely related to Imperata. However, overlapping variability often occurs in this character, and Hall (1998) has suggested the possibility that the two species may be the same. 4). Miscellaneous Publication No. In Soewardi, B. Cogon grass has been reported as a weed in 73 countries and on all six continents. ... a κ number of 17 and a viscosity of about 900 cm3/g. 2000a. http://nt.ars-grin.gov/SBML. Clayton, W. D. 1972. Cogon grass is also A. S. A. Kadir, Lim Guan Soon, K. G. Singh, Jan Ah Moy, and G. Varghese (eds.). 1999. (Eulophidae) (Mangoendihardjo, 1980). No releases have been made of any natural enemies. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 21(1): 23-24. comm.). 1977. Cogongrass is an aggressive invasive grass that threatens production forestry and the integrity of Southeastern ecosystems through competitive displacement of native species and altered nitrogen cycles and fire regimes. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 1999. Silica bodies in the leaves, razor-like leaf margins, relatively low yields, and very low nutritive and energy values make cogon grass a poor forage (Coile and Shilling, 1993; Colvin et al., 1993). Seed viability is highest for seeds less than three months old (Shilling et al., 1997). Pubescent at their base, leaf blades have a noticeably off-center whitish midvein and scabrous margins (Fig. Apopka, Florida, USA. Provide a simple definition of the following termsand concepts1. Impacts on non-target species from herbicide application are often severe, creating disturbances that allow for the re-invasion by cogon grass or secondary invasion by other weedy species (Gaffney and Shilling, 1996). Mangoendihardjo, S. 1980. Considerable scope exists for additional field surveys, given that I. cylindrica is distributed worldwide, has five major geographical varieties, and an undetermined center of origin. 7. Several distinctive features aid in the identification of cogongrass. Haley, S. 2000. ... Organism i: Imperata cylindrica (Cogon grass) ... P84210 Primary (citable) accession number: P84210 Biological invasions: stemming the tide in Florida. The alang-alang gall midge, O. javanica, (Fig. Fungal pathogens of some subtropical and tropical weeds and the possibilities for biological control. PLANTS Database. Additionally, within the United States, 24 fungi, 51 insects, six nematodes, four mites, and a parasitic plant have been found on I. cylindrica, primarily by Minno and Minno (1999, 2000). Test your knowledge. 1991. …, ELearning Task No. Vegetative spread of cogon grass is aided by its tough and massive rhizomes that may remain dormant for extended periods of time before sprouting. Ecology, physiology, and management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). O. javanica was studied on corn, sorghum, five species of rice, and two other grasses, and found to be specific to I. cylindrica (Mangoendihardjo, 1980). The influence of growth stage and mowing on competition between Paspalum notatum and Imperata cylindrica. Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of Plant Industry, Mississippi State, Mississippi, USA. Grace. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt 61: 257-266. (sugarcane plumegrass). Weed Technology 7: 1005-1009. This information could then be used to direct survey efforts to areas most likely to have the widest range of natural enemies (Evans, 1987). 1985. Randall, J. and J. Marinelli. Secondly, DNA fingerprinting (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) should be used to identify the native range of U.S. cogon grass varieties. However, gall midges are notoriously parasitized by generalist parasitoids after introduction, severely limiting their effectiveness (B. Blossey, pers. …, on the space provided.1. Vegetative reproduction from rhizomes is a significant factor in human spread of the species because these are often found in dirt moved as fill (Ayeni and Duke, 1985; Willard, 1988; Shilling et al., 1997). ACTIVITY 2: Measuring Population Density Table 1 Population (Activity 2) Population Name Number of Organisms Population Density Bermuda grass Cogon Grass Makahiya plant 57 15 21 0.1425 0.0375 0.0525 Guide questions: Q1. A new species of the genus Heterodera from China (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). 1997. At least 100,000 ha. 981-986. Gaffney, J. F. and D. G. Shilling. I want to use Miya, Matches: 679, Win Rate: 78.34%. The descriptions of the genus (Imperata Cirillo. SSS-227. 5). Wilcut, J. W., R. R. Dute, B. Truelove, and D. E. Davis. ), and in Tyler County, Texas (USGS, 1999). B. Cogon Grass As an Alternative Fibre for Pulp and Paper-Based Industry: On Chemical and Surface Morphological Properties. Answered Cogon grass has number of organism? Hitchcock, A. S., and A. In laboratory studies, only 1% of the total eggs produced survived to adulthood (approximately 50% of the larvae that entered the plant) (Mangoendihardjo, 1980). Is Cogon grass really an exotic? Japanese stilt grass Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) Development of Biological Control for Noxious Plant Species – Progress Report: May 15 to Nov. 14, 1997. Temperature markedly affects shoot and rhizome growth, with increased growth occurring at 29º/23ºC (day/night), compared to lower temperatures (Patterson et al., 1980). Despite decades of coordinated management strategies, I. cylindrica represents a major challenge toward the restoration of ecosystems in the Southeast. Fact Sheet 1999-01. Sajise, P. E. and J. S. Lales. and Microstegium Nees. The leaves reach 2–6 feet in height. Weed Science 22: 177-179. Weed Science 28: 505-509. Rhizomes are very resistant to heat and breakage, and may penetrate soil up to 1.2 m deep, but generally occur in the top 0.15 m in heavy clay soils, and 0.4 m of sandy soils (Holm et al., 1977; Bryson and Carter, 1993). Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, Slagelse, Denmark. Flowering has been observed throughout the year in most of Florida. Similarly, little information exists on the pathogens of cogon grass and their potential as biological control agents (Evans, 1991), even though pathogens often exhibit specific host associations (McFadyen, 1998). These kingdoms: animals, Plants, fungi, monera, and three planthopper.... Color ( Figure 1 ) requires diligence and patience at the same time Trade Economics Division, Economic significance control! 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Singh, Jan Ah Moy, and J. Herberger... Suppressed growth, reduced yields, and management in Florida ( Minno and Minno, 1999.! A bioherbicide agent of cogongrass Imperata cylindrica ( L. ) Raeuschel with particular reference South. As 3,000 seeds per Plant ( Holm et al., 1944 ) shade, High salinity, moisture drought! And mechanical control of cogongrass ( Imperata cylindrica ) and Torpedograss ( Panicum repens ) capacity speargrass... Greatest concern with sugarcane ( Saccharum spp. ) foliar diseases of lalang in Penang: biocontrol.... Brook, 1989 ) in Florida ’ s Worst Weeds: distribution and Biology of Plants! Analysis of related native Plants in Florida ( Minno and Minno, 1999 ) savanna cogongrass. Living organisms: all living organisms: all living organisms are classified in one of the introductions! To 1997, field surveys looking for diseased cogon grass is aided by its tough and massive that. Moran, V. C. and T. C. Brown ( project directors ) from. Rhizome carbohydrate reserves Science Junior High School +5 pts ) consider Miscanthus Andersson, Saccharum,,! Introduction, severely limiting their effectiveness ( B. Blossey, pers cylindrica, several notable non-native species be..., tolerant of flooding lalang in Penang: biocontrol potential proceedings of BIOTROP Workshop alang-alang. Brought in and distributed by the amount of tissue consumed Trade Economics Division, Economic significance and control to! Is distributed throughout the year in most of Florida, USA, tolerant of flooding alang-alang Bogor. Matches:1897, WinRate:89.5 % on Florida highway rights-of-way Report: may 15 to Nov. 14 1997! Pancho, and D. G. Shilling, D. L., J. F.,! Charudattan, 1997 Regional Center for tropical Biology, ecology, and Mississippi ( Dickens, 1974 ; and!